Negation in IMITHupi dialect of makua

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University of Dar es Salaam
This dissertation reports on a study that describes the markers of negation and their distribution in various types of sentence structures in Imithupi. It also examines the extent to which the scope of negation varies with the choice of the negation markers. The study is based on theoretical concepts drawing on the Basic Linguistic Theory (BLT).Structured Interview and Participant Observation methods were used in data collection. To meet the objectives, each negative verb was fragmented into various morphemes. Then, the forms and distribution of all negative markers were identified. Finally, elements of a sentence negated by each of the markers were identified.The results show that the forms of negation in Imithupi are pre-initial kha-, post-initial -hi- and kha-SM-hi-mwe. These markers occur in different sentence structures; however, it was found that in some sentence structures they can co-occur. These markers can negate subject, verb, object, locative complement, and adjunct of a sentence. It was found that although each of the markers negates different elements, two markers can negate the same element. Finally, except for the verb, negation of subject, object, locative complement and adjunct requires them to be the subject or the topic of the sentence so as to avoid ambiguity on the scope of negation. In conclusion, the study shows that Imithupi exhibits negation characteristics that are common to the majority of Bantu languages but others are unique for Imithupi.For further research, the study recommends the description of the influence of tone on negation.
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Makua language, Negation
Hassan, F. (2010) Negation in IMITHupi dialect of makua. Master dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam. Available at