The private tuition phenomenon in urban schools and its effects on primary and secondary education provision in Tanzania: the case of Dar es Salaam

Thumbnail Image
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
University of Dar es Salaam
This study investigates the emergence of private tuition in urban primary and secondary schools and its effects on education provision in Tanzania. The purpose was to identity and analyses the underlying and immediate factors leading to its emergence and to gauge their impact on education performance. Four major research tasks were formulated to facilitate the research. They include identification of the main factors leading to its emergence; identification of any peculiar differences between the teaching methods used in normal and in tuition classes; investigation and analysis of the effects of private tuition in primary and secondary education provision, and finally analysis of the views and opinions that pupils, teacher, parent and the general public have on private tuition. Data were collected through questionnaires, interviews, observations and documentary reviews. The major findings of the study were as follows: (1) The main but varied factors leading to the emergence of private tuition: the need for passing the examinations under the present highly competitive system of selection, the need for teachers to supplement their low salaries and the desire to compensate for poor classroom teaching, teacher absenteeism and poor academic performance by pupils. (2) The dominant teaching method in tuition was the lecture, very much similar to the chalk-and-talk method in normal classes despite a smaller class size in tuition sessions. (3) The effect of private tuition on primary and secondary education provision were found to be more adverse than positive. Private tuition is carried out in in conductive teaching-learning environments and it discriminates against the majority, who are by comparison poorer than those who are able to send children to private tuition’ (4) Views and opinions on the contribution of private tuition tended to be negative due to the stated adverse effects. It was recommended by many respondents that the Ministry of Education and Culture should provide a conducive learning environment and the necessary teaching-learning materials in normal school classes as well as adequately remunerate teachers so that they can concentrate their attention equally well on all children in normal school classes.
Available in print form, East Africana Collection, Dr. Wilbert Chagula Library, (THS EAF LB1565.D3 G8)
Education, Elementary, Tanzania, Dar es Salaam (city), Study and teaching
Guranywa, T.M.R (1995). The private tuition phenomenon in urban schools and its effects on primary and secondary education provision in Tanzania: the case of Dar es Salaam. Masters dissertation. University of Dar es Salaam. Dar es Salaam