The effectiveness of school inspection on vocationalizing primary education in Tanzania: the case of Kilimanjaro Region

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University of Dar es Salaam
The problem of unemployment in developing countries has become more obvious particularly among the youth due lack of appropriate skills to manage their lives. The government of Tanzania introduced the vocational skills subject in the curriculum in order to equip primary school pupils with knowledge and skills to help them employ themselves after schooling. The school inspectorate is mandated to provide professional support to teachers to ensure efficiency and quality provision of education. The purpose of this study was to find out the extent to which the inspectorate has been effective in vocationalizing primary education. The study was guided by four research tasks and related questions. It involved six primary schools in two districts in Kilimanjaro region, namely Moshi rural and Moshi urban, covering 158 respondents, including District Education Officers (DEOs), school inspectors, head teachers, vocational skill teachers, standard six pupils and primary school leavers. The data collection instruments included a questionnaire, observation, interview, focus group discussions and documentary analysis. Data were analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The study found out that teachers were lacking competence, equipment and materials, special rooms necessary for vocational skill training activities. Also shortage of relevant textbooks, overcrowded classes, frequent curriculum changes and inadequate time allocation for classroom lessons were seriously affecting teaching of vocational skills. While advice from school inspectors was considered appropriate, it was not implemented by teachers on account of lack of follow-up mechanisms. Inspectors’ capability of vocationalizing primary education was adversely affected by lack of competence, shortage of operational funds and minimal transportation facilities. The study recommends provision of textbooks and other academic materials together with dedicated training on this specialization to be provided to school inspectors to enable them to assist teachers accordingly. Transport facilities and adequate funding should be provided to enable school inspectors to make frequent visits and provide necessary professional advice to teachers. Furthermore, school inspectors should be increased in number to manage inspecting every school regularly.
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School inspection, Vocational Training, Primary education, School managment and organization, Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania
Malle, G. A (2011) The effectiveness of school inspection on vocationalizing primary education in Tanzania: the case of Kilimanjaro Region, University of Dar es Salaam. Available at