Tanzanian socialism and scientific socialism

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University of Dar es Salaam
The study indicated to the shaddy beginnings of Tanzanian socialism. It was initially a caption of “African socialism” that was in vogue in the early 1960’s but it can now no longer be identified with it. With the Arusha Declaration and subsequent policy papers Tanzania has defined its socialism and in the process differentiated itself from the sterile “African socialism”. However, Tanzanian’s socialism is also different from scientific socialism in its approaches. In our discussion on the alternative approaches to socialism in Tanzania we have indicated to the fact that the orthodox Marxist approach of class struggle cannot be applied to the Tanzania situation instead to pragmatic approach to socialism has been adopted with the leadership playing the biggest role. Instead of Marxist evolution by Revolution, we have revolution by evolution. The study pointed to the similarity between Nyerere’s social theory and the possessive individuals and liberal democracy of Hobbes and Locke. Although none can deny the influence of these theories in our socialist practice, particularly the constant insistence on the individuals freedom and individuals consent we have gone beyond this liberalism towards the creation of a socialist society. Our path to socialism is unique, due to our difficult circumstances. However our path to socialism is still long and arduous to be able to predict the outcome of our struggle for socialism which is a “multifrontal struggle”.
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Socialism in Tanzania, Villages, Tanzania
Miti, K (1975) Tanzanian socialism and scientific socialism, Masters dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam. Available at (