Ecological crisis and food production in Dodoma district 1920-1960

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University of Dar es Salaam
The history of mankind is the history of struggle against nature, a struggle to extract out of nature all the things needed in the sustenance of life, a struggle to produce the material conditions for existence, Man's successful utilization of nature can be enhanced or limited by the degree of development of the productive forces and social relations of production. Forces of production include the objects, instruments, and products of labour which man interposes between himself and the object of his labour. The social relations of production are the class relations of the society that is work relations, distribution relations, exchange relations and property relations. The ability of man to act and change nature is not limited by history and society but equally by the structure of matter itself. Which of the possibilities immanent in matter are realized, and to what degree, always remains a function of the level of the material and intellectual forces of production. In a society where men are still not in control of their full productive capacity vis-a- vis nature the basis of human existence, that is material production remains qualitatively and quantitatively low. Thus, man's helplessness against the vagaries of nature signifies that man in his appropriation of the material of nature is still bound by the limitation of nature. Man's capacity to articulate with nature is raised by improvement of machinery, appliance of science to production and specialization in production as is possible in a particular mode of production, are characterized by limited improvement of machinery, limited appliance of science to production and limited specialization in production. As a result production is largely small scale and labour and land productivity remain very low. For precapitalist societies, backward forces of production limit the ability to produce and this leads to the occurrence of famines and food shortages
Crops and climate, Agriculture, Tanzania
Mbogoni, L. E. Y. (1981) Ecological crisis and food production in Dodoma district 1920-1960, Masters dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam. Available at (