The impact of spatial interaction on livelihoods a case of Moshi rural district, Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania

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University of Dar es Salaam
This study investigated the impact of the flow of people and commodities in changing the people‟s livelihoods. It also modified Ullman‟s (1980) model in addressing how spatial interaction can change people‟s livelihoods in Moshi Rural District, Kilimanjaro Region. A total of 456 households (10%) from five studied villages were sampled from 4563 households which were obtained from wards executive officers. Various methods which included household‟s questionnaire, interviews, observation and focus group discussions were employed in collecting data in the field. The obtained data were both qualitative and quantitative. Quantitative data were analysed using IBM Statistical Package of Social Sciences (S.P.S.S.) version 17. Also, G.I.S was used to analyse the satellite images of 1990 and 2010 in order to depict qualitative land use changes. The study revealed that there were two main modes of spatial interaction in the study area, namely, movements of people in temporary and permanent bases, and flow of commodities which were rural-rural, rural-urban and rural-international. Several drivers including searching for social services, employment, and education, shortage of land, security and marriage facilitates the movements of people. Meanwhile on the flow of commodities the drivers were good infrastructure, high demand, and profitability, low cost of transportation as well as the ability of the farmers to generate more income. The study revealed also that, the flow of commodities had an impact on land use changes. The study noted the gradual increase of the land size used for banana production (1990-2010) due to the growing demand and customer preferences, and a drastic decline of the land used for coffee cultivation. The flow of commodities in the study area influenced the abandonment of unprofitable crops, while the new profitable crops were introduced. Moreover, the study found out that there were several ways which linked the rural households to the migrants mainly through letter writing, visitation and remittances in kind and in cash.It was concluded that spatial flows have got an impact on changing the people‟s livelihoods in the study area, realized through the acquisition of livelihood assets, which were obtained through selling of crops and their use for various purposes and due to social services and construction of infrastructures. It is finally recommended that, there is a need to establish interventions to manage the flow of commodities in order to regulate prices and to ensure that the crops sold were purchased at a reasonable price. Furthermore, for the flow of people, there was a need for the central and local governments, in collaboration with other development agencies, to respond to the challenges of migration by assisting people who had already migrated to other places to fulfil their migration obligation by providing them with financial support so as to enhance their working conditions.
Available in print form, East Africana Collection, Dr. Wilbert Chagula Library, Class mark (THS EAF HB1951.T34K57)
Migration, Internal, Rural- urban migration, Residential mobility, Moshi Rural District, Kilimianjaro region, Tanzania
Kitali, L.J (2014) The impact of spatial interaction on livelihoods a case of Moshi rural district, Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania, Doctoral dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam