The views of educators and students on music education in Tanzania secondary schools.

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University of Dar es Salaam
The purpose of this study was to examine the views of educators and students on music education in Tanzania, and the current status of music education in the country. So far, music is taught in only eight (8) out of seven hundred and forty (740) schools. The study was guided by four objectives, namely to: identify the attitudes of educators and students to music education in Tanzania schools, and examine how the attitudes affect the state of music in Tanzania schools today; examine the quality of music teachers in Tanzania secondary schools; examine the state of infrastructure for music teaching in schools; and explore the career prospects of music students. The study was conducted in four secondary schools in Arusha and Moshi. The sample comprised of 80 Form IV music students and 160 non-music students. Other respondents included officials of the Ministry of Education, curriculum developers, inspectors, heads of schools, academic deans, classroom teachers and students. Data were collected through structured interviews, questionnaires, attitude scales, and observations. The findings indicated that the majority of the educators had negative attitudes towards music education. To them, music was for recreation and of no academic value. Music was ranked extremely low in terms of its usefulness. The educational level of music teachers was very low. Most of the teachers were all certificate holders while those for other subjects were diploma holders, and graduates. The approved music syllabus was not taught. Among the 183 sampled teachers, 4 were certificate holders (and these were music teachers), 158 were diploma holders, and 21 were graduate teachers. The availability of musical instruments and infrastructure for music teaching was very limited and inadequate. Finally, there were limited music related career opportunities for music students apart from teaching. Some recommendations from the study included the need for the government to elevate the status of music to a core subject, with subject combinations; and music teachers to be graduates and diploma holders. It was also recommended that means of raising funds be devised to ensure quality teaching and the government to provide more of music - job related opportunities for music majors. Another recommendation was that qualified music teachers should be given freedom to either teach music in schools or establish their own private music centres. Furthermore, there is need to concentrate or limit music teaching to a few schools in order to facilitate close resourcing, coordination and supervision.
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Music, Instruction and study, Tanzania
Addo, P. O. (1998). The views of educators and students on music education in Tanzania secondary schools. Master dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam. Available at (