Determinants of public secondary schools' effectiveness

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University of Dar es Salaam
The purpose of the study was to make a comparative analysis of effectiveness of public secondary schools with specific intention of investigating variables that characterised “effective” schools. The Interactive Systems Approach Modified from the model advanced by Scheerens (1989) was adopted to guide the study. The data were obtained through questionnaires, observation schedules, checklists and documentary reviews. These instruments were administered to seven Public Secondary schools in Tanzania Mainland. The respondents to the instruments included seven Headmasters, 28 subject teachers and 140 pupils. A comparative analytical approach was adopted while a “t”-test of significance was used to determine whether the observed average differences between schools in the within school process and climate characteristics were statistically significant or not. The findings indicated the following: (a) sixty seven percent of pupils in schools defined as “effective” scored grade “C+” and above in 1990, 1991 and 1992 National Form Four examinations while 75% of pupils in schools defined as “ineffective” scored below “C+”. (b) average completion rates for “successful” schools was 94%. While that of “ineffective” school was 84%. (c) Fifty two percent of 1992 Form Four graduates of “effective” schools were selected for further education as compared o 24 of pupils from “ineffective” schools. (d) there was no statistical significant difference between schools in the availability of school inputs namely, number of teachers, teachers’ level of education, number of teaching equipment’s and textbooks. (e) The between school average differences in pupils’ attitudes toward schooling were statistically insignificant at P = 0.05. (f) differences in the following average school process and climate variable between schools were statistically significant: teachers’ academic commitment in assigning homework to learners, prompt marking of learners’ assignment, teaching methods used by teachers in classes, attitudes toward pupils progress, frequent use of teaching aids by teacher, time devoted in classroom activities and application of extrinsic incentives toward better school outcomes. The study concludes that schools should consider the school process and climate characteristic and create conducive environment necessary for “effective” schooling.
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Education, Secondary, Research, School management and organization, Tanzania
Noya, A. J. K (1994) Determinants of public secondary schools' effectiveness, Masters dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam. Available at