Diffusion of a planned innovation: a case study of introduction and diffusion of cattle artificial insemination in Usangi- Pare,Tanzania

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University of Dar es Salaam
The purpose of this study was to investigate various factors which determined the diffusion of the planned innovation of cattle artificial insemination in Usangi Pare, Tanzania. Along with this the study attempted to examine the factor which was most in influencing the adoption of the innovation. The data for the study were mainly collected in December 1976 through documentary study, field observation and personal interviews. Political leaders at Divisional, Ward, Village and Cell levels as well as the Veterinary Officials at national, regional, district, and particularly the division level were interviewed. Most of the data were obtained from the eighty four householders of Usangi Pare who were interviewed. They included 34 full-time peasants, 18 craftsmen, 17 businessmen, and 15 civil servants. In order to facilitate interpretation of the data in most cases the percentage was calculated and in other cases Chi-Square was also computed. The findings revealed that there were many environmental and human factors which influenced the adoption of the innovation which included antecedent factors, origin of the innovation and innovation decision, change agents, attributes of the innovation, time effect, spatial distance from the innovating centre and effect of the results. But occupation was the most important factor which differentiated the early and later adopters and which discriminated the adopters and non- adopters. The effect of education was only seen where it was associated with occupation. The way the planned innovation was introduced, contrary to the policy of promoting equality in the country, favored the businessmen and civil servants. Among the recommendations which are summarized at the end of the report are: (a) That the economic structure of the country must be changed to equalize the income of the full-time peasant with that of the businessmen and civil servants if we are to seriously build socialism. (b) That our development objectives require that we follow multi-sector and integrated approach so that the dependent, supportive and related inputs go together. (c) That the people concerned must be involved in planning and implementing their development so that it becomes easier to reduce dependency. (d) That careful study of the natural endowments of the people’s area including resource assessment, climate, land use, human occupations and other environmental and human aspects can facilitate and better the planning and implementation of development projects. This includes making research on relevant issues. (e) That co-operative ownership of cattle farms and grass fields, vehicles for transporting feedings and milk, milk shops, dips, sprays etc would solve most of the problems and at the same time promote equality. (f) That every member of a family must do his equal share of work without discrimination to avoid, among other things, the exploitation of woman by man
Artificial insemination, Domestic animals, Stock and stock breeding, Agriculture, Pare, Tanzania (district)
Mshana, S. A. (1977) Diffusion of a planned innovation: a case study of introduction and diffusion of cattle artificial insemination in Usangi- Pare,Tanzania, Masters dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam. Available at