Livestock versus cotton: a conflicts in the early British colonial economic policy in Usukuma 1921-1950. The case study of Shinyanga district - Tanzania

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University of Dar es Salaam
This study on Livestock Versus Cotton in Usukuma explains and analyses how the Traditional (Pre-colonial) Economy in Usukuma based on Livestock acted as a break to the Imposed Capitalist Economy, in Usukuma, based on the cultivation of cotton. Chapter one gives the theoretical considerations of Capitalism, Colonialism and Imperialism. It maps out V.I. Lenin's Theory of Imperialism and the Underdevelopment theories of Andre Gunder Frank, Samir Amin and Wallenstein and their relevance to the analysis of the imposition of the capitalist relations of production in Usukuma during the colonial period and in the epoch of neo-colonialism. Chapter two gives the Background History of Usukuma particularly the dominance of livestock where all the other two sectors of this economy .agriculture and trade-culminated. It also gives a brief history of German colonialism - particular emphasis has been given on the German military aspect and the dividing of the country into economic zones namely Labour - reserves, European plantation zones and peasant production zones including Usukuma. Also the chapter shows how the First Imperialist War led to the demise of the capitalist and to the revival of the traditional, economy in Usukuma. Chapter three examines British colonialism and the, imposition of their capitalist economy in Tanganyika and Usukuma up to 1930. Chapter four analyses in detail the Conflict between Livestock and Cotton, the British outcry on soil-erosion, tsetse fly, and overstocking in Usukuma. The chapter argues that there was no serious soil erosion in the area, but the Order from London Colonial Office which called for increased cotton production in Usukuma, to make Britain Self-reliant in raw cotton, was responsible far this outcry on soil erosion. The reason was to destock Usukuma to devote both labour and land on increased cotton production. Destocking was initially rejected by the government because, it feared, it would have inter-fared with the plan of growing cotton. The government ordered the use of palliative measures instead. Also, the chapter examines the effects of the Second World War on the British economic policies in Usukuma. Limited Compulsory Destocking was introduced to give meat to the British Civilians and soldiers. It also examines the British need for increased cotton production and the marketing of this crop under the Regulations of the Security Defence Act of 1939. The aim was to Save the Dollar in order to help the British war effort. While chapter five examines the aftermaths of the Second World War and the introduction of Compulsory destocking in Usukuma to make the live- stock industry to participate in the policy of Saving the Dollars, to remove the conflict and to make Usukuma increase the production of cotton to help the sterling Area to pay the British debts created by the Marshall Aid Plan. The destocking scheme and the Sukuma land Development Scheme which were introduced to realize the above metropolitan British policy, led to the demise of the schemes when the Wasukuma openly opposed them. Then the chapter gives the research findings in the form of conclusions.
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Agriculture, Tanganyika, Shinyanga, History, Economic conditions, Economic policy, 1920-50, Cotton, Domestic animals
Mboya, P (1987)Livestock versus cotton: a conflicts in the early British colonial economic policy in Usukuma 1921-1950. The case study of Shinyanga district - Tanzania