Code switching and code mixing in multilingual communities: a case of higher learning institutions in Tanzania.

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University of Dar es Salaam
The study sat out to describe multilingual Bode switching and mixing in some institutions of higher learning in Tanzania. It attempts to establish the pattern in which the languages are alternated and the social meaning that, is encoded in wade switching among speakers in these institutions. The first chapter discusses in detail the historical background and the linguistic dynamics which led to the present ethnic languages, Swahili and English multilingualism among Tanzania’s. The resultant social statures that the community accords each of these languages are ales discussed. In this same chapter, are presented the theoretical framework on which the study was based and the methodology employed in collecting and analysing the data. The second chapter, is largely a review of some literature on code mixing and code switching conducted in some other multilingual communities. Two previous studies, (Scotton 1987 based in Nairobi) and (Mkilifi 1972 based in Dar es Salaam) are especially highlighted due to their relevance to the present study. Chapter three is a presentation of the findings, highlighting the patterns of switching and mixing, the distribution of various syntactic Categories at switch points, and reasons for switching codes as reported by speakers. Their attitudes and valuation of the different languages are also discussed here. The theoretical implications of the findings are discussed in chapter four where it is maintained that, code switching in the institutions of higher learning is mostly an unmarked choice and that speakers switch not to negotiate differential identities but rather to register their dual identities with the values encoded in the respective alternate languages. It is also argued that, the higher occurrence of unarmarked code switching is a function of the social structure and the merging functional roles of the languages in the studied community. Chapter five presents same recommendations and suggestions for further research.
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Multilingualism, Code switching, Tanzania
Rajabu, R. (1991). Code switching and code mixing in multilingual communities: a case of higher learning institutions in Tanzania. Master dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam. Available at (