Poverty, urbanization and development: the case of Manzese squatter settlement, Dar es Salaam, and its impact on women.

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University of Dar es Salaam
The primary purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the environmental and general socio-economic living conditions of people in the unplanned urban settlement of Manzese in the City of Dar es Salaam. The research formulated hypotheses to the effect that: Both poverty and shortage of housing units in Dar es Salaam are at critical levels that women and children have been adversely affected due to poor environmental sanitation and living conditions. Moreover, the hypotheses proposed that the conditionality of Housing Credit or Building loan schemes by Tanzania financial institutions are in most cases too strangest and tend to discourage people from seeking such housing credit funds. The sample consisted of eighty women respondents. Data for this study was collected using documentary research, interviews, questionnaires and researcher's observation. The main method used for data collection was the questionnaire. Based on the findings from both documentary research and data analysis, the researcher concluded that: (i) people living in Manzese squatter settlement are poor both in terms of income and lack of access to basic needs such as proper surveyed plots, housing, inadequate services such as water, electricity, recreational facilities and dumping places within or close to their vicinity; (ii) The environmental and sanitation conditions of Manzese are very poor. People have no proper cooking places, they are overcrowded hence forced to share some services such as toilets whereby the modality of toilet waste disposal is alarming; (iii) In Market areas where they obtain their daily food, the sanitary condition is very poor; and (iv) The performance of delivery of public service to the Manzese squatter settlements is very low as such people and children in general have limited areas designated for recreational activities or early childhood education. The researcher therefore recommended that the Government should review its housing plot allocation policy for Urban Residential Areas to enable poor income people to have access to plots. Alternatively, it should launch a comprehensive Urban Housing Cooperative Programme which would promote construction of houses for low cost residential houses for low income group. It is also recommended that the city should improve its urban waste management operations, the city authority should make it mandatory for house owners to construct both cooking sheds and toilets for a fixed number of residents. Lastly, the Government should help children living in squatter settlements, like Manzese, by building day care centres and kindergarten services as an investment in human resource development.
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Sexual ethics, Girls, Aids(disease), Coastal regions, Tanzania
Bagile, A. R. (1998). Poverty, urbanization and development: the case of Manzese squatter settlement, Dar es Salaam, and its impact on women. Doctoral dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam. Available at (