Water management in Usambara mountain ranges

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University of Dar es Salaam
This study was carried out with the intention of exploring and suggesting measures for water management in Usambara mountain ranges. To effect this, 11 rainfall stations were identified and analysis for rainfall amount trends. 209 small schemes were identified. Irrigation water requirement for the identified schemes was estimated using the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) Computer programme CROPWAT, underlie assumption that the crops grown in the whole field are maize, beans and vegetables. Comparison was done with the rainfall amount in the nearest stations. Inter-annual flows of two river gauging stations, that is, Umba—Mwakijembe and Umba- Kitivyo, were analysed using Khronostat programme. Questionnaire survey was conducted to the farmers to find out their perceptions on the cause of water shortage and options been adopted to cope with that situation. The issue of water rights was also analyzed. The study found out that the rainfall has been decreasing over the past 30 years, 10 out of 11 rainfall stations analyzed showed negative rainfall trends, at the same time the estimated water requirement is insignificant compared to rainfall amounts recorded at the nearest stations. According the farmer's perceptions, the cause of water shortage in the Usambara mountains is the increase in land use and demand. Institutional weaknesses is the major reason for failure of most water user Projects. On the recommendation part of the study, measures were suggested for a better management of water resources in Usambara mountains.
Available in print form, EAF collection, Dr. Wilbert Chagula Library, class mark (THS EAF TC427.5.T34C4)
Water resources development, Water management, Usambara mountain ranges, Tanzania
Chendela, M ( 2004 ) Water management in Usambara mountain ranges, Masters dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam.