Improving sanitation system: technical and social economic perspectives

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University of Dar es Salaam
Lack of adequate sanitation systems has an impact to human life as well as to the natural environment. Over 80% of the country's population has access to latrines, only 8% of these meet hygienic standards. Thus, sanitation related diseases present the greatest health burden on the individual household and on the country. The aim of this work is to improve sanitation systems in the City of Kigali by analyzing practices with respect to technology, provision and management of sanitation systems. In order to achieve the goals of this study, a combination of literature review, and interviews with key informants were performed. A questionnaire based survey was also conducted in 200 households in Nyarugenge district. The research found that existing institutional framework for sanitation sub sector was incompetent and need capacity building of human resources and proper coordination of all key actors. Lack of sectorial laws, national guidelines, decrees and standards is still a challenge to national regulatory agencies. It was observed also that more emphasis on financing sanitation sub-sector is crucial. The types of sanitation found are on- site sanitation systems where traditional pit latrines are dominants with a proportion of 77.3% of households, compared to automatic flushing toilet with septic tanks of 15.3%, pour flush of 4.4% and VIP% of 2.9%. It was found that 92.8% have toilet facilities while 7.2% of households do not have toilet at all. Majority of the households (74.35%), strongly agreed to accept options for improved sanitation systems, and VIP latrines were recommended in this concern.
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sanitation system, social economic, Kigali, Nyarugenge
Kayitesi, M.(2008) Improving sanitation system: technical and social economic perspectives, Master dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam. Dar es Salaam.