The use of agricultural wastes as alternative fuel for clinker burning in cement industries Tanzania: the case of Tanzania Portland Cement Company Ltd (TPCC) Wazo Hill –Tegeta

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Date
2012
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Publisher
University of Dar es salaam
Abstract
Cement production is a high energy intensive. Most of the cement industries in Tanzania are using fossil fuel like Natural gas, fine coal and heavy furnace oil as a source of fuel for clinker burning. This is different from other countries worldwide where by the cement industries substitute the fossil fuel with other alternative fuel like used tyres, plastics, wastes oil, wood chips and other agricultural wastes to reserve the fossil fuel. The use of agricultural wastes minimise the CO2 emission in the atmosphere since they are carbon neutral. To make the cement industries in Tanzania sustainable, a study of eleven (11) tropical biomass wastes, coffee husks, rice husks, coconut shells, cashew nut shells, groundnut shells, bagasse, sisal tow and flumes, corn cobs, rice straw, wheat straw and corn stalk were characterised to proximate and ultimate analysis, likewise resource availability and sustainability was taken into consideration. Based on sustainability it was found that coconut and groundnut shells were of small quantity to be fired in a kiln, sisal tow and flume had low bulk density to be transported, corn cobs, rice straw, wheat straw and corn stalk despite of having good calorific value were used for livestock keeping and bagasse for power generation. Only rice and coffee husks had adequate fuel characteristics and sustainable to be used in thermo chemical process for clinker burning and substituted at 8% to the main fuel with a feed rate of 4:1 coffee and rice husk to meet the clinker mineralogy to neutralise the effect of alkaline metal present in Rice husk ashes (RHA).
Description
Available in print copy
Keywords
Agricultural wastes as fuel, Cement industry, Tanzania Portland Cement Company, Clinker burning, Wazo Hill, Tegeta, Tanzania
Citation
Mugarula, L. (2012). The use of agricultural wastes as alternative fuel for clinker burning in cement industries Tanzania: the case of Tanzania Portland Cement Company Ltd (TPCC) Wazo Hill –Tegeta. Master dissertation, udsm. Available at (http://41.86.178.3/internetserver3.1.2/search.aspx)