Factors influencing energy use in urban transport sector: a case study of Dar es Salaam city.

No Thumbnail Available
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
The world witnessed energy crises of 1973/7 and that of 1978/79 bringing about escalating oil prices that was associated with curtailed supply. Despite the consequences of these crises, oil as a resource is bound to depletion. This creates the need for efficient utilization of this fossil fuel in all its applications. Furthermore, inefficient utilization of fossil fuel causes environmental degradation by emitting more greenhouse gases in the atmosphere with a result in global warming and thereby influencing climatic changes. World wide, the transport sector is a major user of energy demand, consuming over 16% (41 % for Tanzania). Energy saving in this sector may reduce this level. In determining the factors that influence energy use in the transport sector, a research was carried in the city of Dar es Salaam. Here, 61 questionnaires were distributed to vehicle users to investigate different factors such as vehicle makes and their proportions, distance traveled and fuel consumption per day, social aspects, vehicle operating costs, roads condition, drivers behaviour and maintenance aspects. These were corelated to fuel consumption patterns. Dar es Salaam city hosts unlimited list of vehicle makes from the world over, Japan being the major supplier. Reconditioned and used vehicles tools a larger percentage of total vehicle proportion which was mainly of saloon cars. Fuel consumption per day was recorded to be higher, being caused by poor operating environment of unworthy roads condition and inappropriate vehicle maintenance, Financial constraints was cited to be the contributor to this end. Along with the aforementioned physical factors that influence fuel consumption in urban transport sector there are social and management factors coming into effect. For instance, proper drivers' behaviour which comes second to vehicle technological improvement is potential in fuel saving. It is also observed that an effective way of reducing domestic fuel consumption or distance of travel is by improving public transport and introducing car pooling that works efficiently, this will marginalize the use of private transport. By managing transport demand and transport system many of the today's perceived transport problems could be overcome. Transport management starts from land use planning to as far as when transport projects are being executed and especially during the operation phase: Among the useful transport management techniques for alleviating road congestion includes improvement to road capacity, linking traffic signals, provision of one way streets, parking prohibition, controlling vehicle population, staggering working hours of activities and even by road pricing. While observing the discussion on social and management factors the following is recommended. The Government has to establish sound legislation on road worthiness of motor vehicles and there should be a governing body that will oversee the quality of imported vehicles. Roads condition improvement is necessary and should be maintained through timely repairs. Furthermore, the advent of Songo Songo natural gas in Southern Tanzania can reduce the country's dependence on using imported petroleum for application in internal combustion engines.
Tanzania, Dar es Salaam city, Transport sector, Urban transport, Fuel consumption
Wilson, L. (1997). Factors influencing energy use in urban transport sector: a case study of Dar es Salaam city. Masters dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam. Available at (