Assessement of implications of the pastoral transformation from nomadic to sedentary livelihood systems on food security in Kiteto district, Tanzania

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Date
2019
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
Publisher
University of Dar es Salaam
Abstract
A study was set out to assess the impacts of pastoralism transformation from nomadic system to sedentary on food security among Maasai pastoralists in Kiteto District. Specific objectives were (i) to identify the factors for the transformation of pastoralist in the study area; (ii) to examine the nature of pastoral transformation from nomadic to sedentary systems on livestock production in the study area and (iii) to explore the impacts of the pastoral transformation from nomadic to sedentary systems on food security in the study area. The study was conducted in two villages, Ilera and Makame in Kiteto District. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were employed in this study. The cross-sectional study design was employed, and random sampling technique was used to determine the sample size. Interview and observation were used in data collection, and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS)was used to analyze data. The study found that pull and push-factors were responsible for the transformation of Maasai pastoralists in Kiteto district. The pull factors were accessibility to food, water, health services, schools, farming activities, markets for livestock, and roads for transport, whereas the forceful/push factors were shortage of grazing land; livestock mortalities and globalization. With respect to the nature of transformation, it was found that, although majority of pastoralists (91.7%) have shifted to sedentary system of production still (87%) move their animals seasonally, depending on the availability of pastures and water. The transformation impacted the trend of food production, food quality and the state of food security. About (50%) of interviewees reported that the trend of food production has been relatively low after shifting to sedentary system of production. Majority of pastoralists (87%) were able to produce food of good quality. About (75%) of pastoralists were engaging in crop cultivation as an alternative source of income, whereas (78.1%) sell livestock at the start of the dry season to buy other types of foods. About 90.6% of pastoralists had moderate adequate chance of obtaining different food stuffs after sedentarization while 71.9% of pastoralists who shifted to sedentary agro-pastoral had a moderate level of improved health status. As a conclusion, transformation of pastoralists was an inevitable phenomenon as a matter of practical survival in the modern world. Thus, in order for the pastoralists to improve more their means of livelihoods and the state of food security, it was recommend that sound and responsive policies and strategies must be pursued to overcome adverse effects of climate change particularly drought, desertification and diseases.
Description
Available in printed form, East Africana Collection, Dr. Wilbert Chagula Library, Class mark (THS EAF SF140.P38.T34E383)
Keywords
Pastoral system, Livelihood system, Food Security, Kiteto district, Tanzania
Citation
Edward, N.R (2019) Assessement of implications of the pastoral transformation from nomadic to sedentary livelihood systems on food security in Kiteto district, Tanzania.Master dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam.