The role of the party (C.C.M.) in foreign policy making in Tanzania: a case study of trade and aid 1977 - 1989

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University of Dar es Salaam
This study has attempted to examine the role of the Party in foreign policy making in Tanzania with particular reference to trade and aid. The main interest was to find out to what extent the Party's foreign policy principles pertaining to trade and aid are reflected in the Party's ideology of Socialism and Self-reliance. The underlying assumption is that the Party in Tanzania is supreme and therefore the major factor in foreign policy making. In respect to trade and aid the Party's directive as enshrined in the Arusha Declaration was to ensure that deliberate efforts are made to diversify the content and direction of both trade and aid from the traditional sources in order to reduce and end dependence. The findings of the study indicate that while encouraging attempts have been made to diversify the trading partners, Britain and the western capitalist countries are still Tanzania's principal trading partners once established are very difficult to delink. As regards to foreign aid, the picture that emerges is that the Nordic countries are Tanzania's principal donors. The second major donor is the European Economic Community (EEC). Efforts towards diversification have been more successful on sources of aid than in the case of trade. Moreover, foreign aid has been increasing steadily over the years in the 1970s and 1980s contrary to the ideals of the Arusha Declaration. However, the justification of the improved nature of aid is on the ground that it was put to the productive sectors of the country's economy and was therefore additional to local resources. In the 1980s foreign aid began to be used as a political weapon. Getting aid from capitalist countries was linked to meeting the IMF conditionalities. Tanzania found herself in a dilemma and had to sign an agreement with the Fund. The signing got the approval of the party thus closing the debate between the party and government over the desirability of the fund conditionalities. The important conclusions that have been reached subscribe to the view that the party in Tanzania has been weak to exert its political supremacy over the government on matters relating to trade and aid. Historical and external forces have been very much influential in orienting the trade and aid issues. Overall, it looks as though a dream of self reliant Tanzania has become a mirage. Indeed, there has been within the governmental circles something like a tenet of faith among the more technocratically inclined of Tanzania's trade and aid bureaucrats that socialism and trade do not mix. This contention is highly questionable. The admixture of socialism has always been smaller and more rhetorical than has generally been supposed, and that other aspects of trade and aid policy which have not changed have been responsible for the avertion of the policy of socialism and self-reliance.
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Tanzania, Foreign relations
Komba, A. E. (1989) The role of the party (C.C.M.) in foreign policy making in Tanzania: a case study of trade and aid 1977 - 1989, Masters dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam. Available At ( t