The impact of household environmental covariates and health inequalities on health outcomes: the case of child mortality in Tanzania

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University of Dar es Salaam
The study aimed at investigating the contributions of a wide set of household environmental characteristics and socioeconomic factors as proximate determinants of child mortality. It also assessed inequalities in access and utilization of health inputs as another key determinant of child health outcomes in Tanzania. The study used econometrics of count data and duration model to carry out a multivariate analysis of the proximate determinants of child mortality, focusing on socio-economic, environmental and behavioral factors. It also used both concentration curves and concentration indices to measure inequalities in child health with focus on child mortality and utilization of other essential child health services among households ranked by living standard measures such as wealth index. The analysis is based on data from the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS). Results from the empirical analysis showed that household income as measured by welfare index, months of breastfeeding the child, source of drinking water to the household, type of toilet facility as a measure of sanitation and mothers level of education are among the important proximate determinants of child health outcomes in Tanzania. Furthermore, the results show that inequalities in most of the categories of child health were more concentrated among the poor in the sense that they are to the disadvantage of the worse-off households. However, the extent to which this is true differed between rural and urban area. When inequalities were compared between urban and rural areas, it was found that inequalities in child health are more pronounced in rural areas with computed coefficients being statistically significant. In terms of policy relevance the findings suggest that policies aimed at improving household income and basic social services at household level will improve chances of child survival. They same applies to policies aimed at combating child health inequalities especially accessibility of health services in rural areas where inequalities are more pronounced.
Available in print form, East Africana Collection, Chagula Library, Class mark Dr. Wilbert (THS EAF HB1323.C5T34N452 )
Children, Mortality, Child health services, Tanzania
Ngasamiaku, W.M. (2015) The impact of household environmental covariates and health inequalities on health outcomes: the case of child mortality in Tanzania, Doctoral dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam