Criminal sanctions efficacy in environmental management in mainland Tanzania: the Case of Wildlife Resources

No Thumbnail Available
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
University of Dar es Salaam
Enforcement of environmental law in Tanzania relies heavily on the use of criminal sanctions. The use of criminal sanctions in dealing with environmental crimes is debated around the world. This study examines the criminal element of wildlife legislation with a view of determining how it affects the management of the environment and why. It was the finding of the study that the existing literature hardly advocates the use of alternatives to criminal sanctions. Instead, almost every wrong which is committed under the wildlife legislation is treated as a crime. In this qualitative study, a collective study design was used. The sample was selected purposevely and it involved a total of eighty two (82) participants. Both primary and secondary data were used, particularly interviews and documentary review. In view of the study findings the deterrent effect of criminal sanctions in wildlife management is acknowledged, however, we argue that it falls short of expectations because it does not address the underlying causes behind the committed crimes. Many forces come into play against total reliance on criminal sanctions as a strategy to stem the tide of environmental crimes in nature reserves: poverty and poor public participation in the management of wildlife resources being among other factors. This study concludes that, the criminal element of wildlife legislation affects negatively the management of the environment. It recommends use of other approaches such as, enhancement of public participation; poverty eradication; and establishment of mobile courts to ensure the efficacy of enforcement of criminal sanctions in addressing wildlife crimes in Tanzania in general, and at study sites in particular.
Available in print form
Constructed wetlands, Phosphorous removal, Pathogens removal
Levira, M. C. (2012) Criminal sanctions efficacy in environmental management in mainland Tanzania: the Case of Wildlife Resources. doctoral dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam, Avaialable at (