Effectiveness of school based - sexuality education in promoting knowledge and skills relating to prevention of pregnancies and hiv in tanzania

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University of Dar es Salaam
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of school based sexuality education in promoting knowledge and skills relating to the prevention of pregnancy and HIV and AIDS. The rationale was that understanding how teachers and pupils experience sexuality education in schools could perhaps contribute to better ways of mitigating HIV/AIDS and pregnancies. In this regard, the study was guided by five research objectives: to explore what and how SE is provided in primary schools, to explore teachers’ knowledge for providing effective SE, to find out pupils’ understanding of SE, to assess teachers pupils and parents’ attitudes to SE and finally to assess the challenges that affect the provision of SE. The study used a Mixed - Method design, whereby both quantitative and qualitative approaches were utilized. The study population was drawn from a total of 390 participants which include heads of schools parents, teachers and pupils. Data collection methods included observation, questionnaires, interviews, and documentar. Data were analyzed and presented both quantitatively and qualitatively. The research findings show that although SE has provided some knowledge on various aspects in schools, pupils lacked appropriate skills necessary for prevention of pregnancy and HIV infection. The results also show that while pupils demonstrated significant knowledge on HIV/AIDS they had inadequate knowledge on other aspects related to sexuality. This was marred by teachers’ lack of correct knowledge and skills for effectively teaching SE topics and little public discourse on sex. The study uniquely reveals that teachers, pupils and parents had positive attitudes toward the provision of SE in primary schools. However, different challenges deterred teachers and pupils from learning about SE topics including inadequate policy, lack of training, cultural barrier and personal behaviours. The study recommends several measures to improve the teaching of SE in primary schools. These include, among others, introducing training and in-service training to improve pedagogical knowledge and skills among teachers for effective teaching of SE as well as teaching SE while focusing on all integrated aspect so as to improve pupils’ SE knowledge holistically. Indeed, pregnancy content should be introduced as early as possible as HIV and AIDS. Correspondingly, it is recommended that dialogue and open discussions on SE among various stakeholders such as parents, pupils religious leaders and politicians should be encouraged and promoted. The study also calls for other studies to investigate how pupils use SE knowledge and skills to protect themselves from sexual risks, particularly pregnancy and HIV.
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Sexuality Education, Pregnancies, Aids (Disease), Tanzania
Bilinga, M. J.(2012)Effectiveness of school based - sexuality education in promoting knowledge and skills relating to prevention of pregnancies and hiv in Tanzania. Master dissertation, University of Dar es Slaam, Available at (