Survey of culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) of East Africa: their taxonomy and distribution.

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University of East Africa
Synonymy affecting the family name, Ceratopogonidae, is discussed: A historical review of the discovery of Culicoides in East Africa between 1900 and 1966 and the medical and veterinary importance of Culicoides as vectors of disease, particularly those caused by viruses and filariae, is given. A brief account of the morphological characters used in identification is given together with information on materials and methods used for collecting and studying the adult Culicoides captured. Sixty one species of Culicoides were found, 25 of which are new to science and 48 (including the new species) are recorded for the first time in East Africa. Among established species, the female of kibatiensis and the males of trifasciellus, expectator, brucei, guinquelineatus, albopunctatus and adersi are described for the first time. Reasons for grouping the 61 species into 15 "species groups" of closely related members and definitions of quantitative characters used in classification and identification are given. Separate keys for identifying slide-mounted female and male Culicoides that were collected from East Africa during this study, together with a detailed description of each taxonomic entity (established species being compared with published descriptions) are given. Confusing synonyms are fully discussed. A distribution list of East African Culicoides according to ecological zones is attempted. The generic identity of Ceratopogon imperfectus (= Culicoides imperfectus Goetghebuer) is fully discussed and a detailed description of Ceratopogon imperfectus is given.
Insects, Classification, Ceratopogoridae, East Africa
Khamala, C. P. M. (1968). Survey of culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) of East Africa: their taxonomy and distribution. Doctoral dissertation, University of East Africa. Available at (