Kihamba land ownership and rural transformation in Kilimanjaro

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University of Dar es Salaam
In this study an attempt is made to discuss the historical development of individual land ownership in Kilimanjaro with a view to highlighting the nature of the deep-rooted system of private landed proprietorships which forms the crucial obstacle to socialization of agricultural production and appropriation. Its evolution since the pre-colonial days to the present will be examined. Special emphasis will be addressed to the broad objectives of rural transformation both during the colonial era and in the post-independence period. This study is a product of a field research conducted mostly in Rombo District. The research took the form of interviews with old peasants, party and Government officials at the District Headquarters, Rombo, and at the Regional Headquarters, Moshi. The National Archives of Tanzania was another useful source of the data. Assistance was also sought in earlier works written by researchers as well as government officials who worked in the area before this study. The paper is divided into three sections. Chapter One studies the pre-colonial agro-economic system. In chapter two it endeavours to examine the system of land ownership as modified by the penetration of capitalist commodity production relations. Lastly, in chapter three, it discusses the existing system of private peasant proprietorships in land and the problems they present in the transition to rural socialism. In this chapter a few suggestions based on the experience of other socialist countries like China, U.S.S.R and Cuba are made as to the strategy which should be employed towards the stated objective.
Kilimanjaro, Land tenure, Tanzania
Ngeleshi, J. B. M. K. (1977) Kihamba land ownership and rural transformation in Kilimanjaro, Masters dissertation, university of Dar es Salaam. Available at