Water quality and environment in squatter settlements of metropolitan Dar es Salaam

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Date
2002
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
Publisher
University of Dar es Salaam
Abstract
Water quality status squatter settlements of Dar es Salaam were examined. Water source namely processed commercial (bottled) water treated up water, borehole water, shallow well, rain and river waters were examined. Water quality parameters such as pH, TDS, TSS, EC, colour, turbidity, levels of Cl, No3, SO42, pO43-, TC and FC counts were analysed. The study has revealed that treated tap water is the safest of the water sources is squatter settlements (excluding bottled and rain water as their use is minimal). Bacterial contamination of water, the major problem in squatter areas was observed in most water sources. Bottled water samples were free of TC/FC counts (although presence of other bacterial varieties has been demonstrated). Rain water was virtually free of bacterial contamination save for some stored samples (ca 2 TC and l FC per 100 ml).Tap water (ca 7 TC, and 2 FC), borehole (ca 484 TC and 210 FC), shallow wells (ca 4222 TC and 748 PC), rivers (ca 34260 TC and 8310 FC) progressively register enhanced contamination. The nitrate values (in ppm) were: bottled water (2.9), rain water (2.0), tap water (2.0), boreholes (24.9), shallow wells (43.6), and rivers (5.1). Parameters such as P043-, S042-, Ct- and TDS levels showed some variation as well. It was found that water quality in non-squatter areas was relatively better than in squatter areas. Poor planning of settlements increases the pollution loads to water sources. The major sources of pollution are domestic sewage, septic tanks, pit latrines and improper solid waste disposal. Occasionally tap water in squatter areas has yielded very poor water quality as a result of re-contamination due to damaged PVC pipes either accidentally or willfully because of water rationing. This study has also revealed that there is linear correlation in the aquatic environment between TC and TDS, conductivity and Cl’ was observed in the study. Probably other factors may also influence the relationship.
Description
Available in printed form, East Africana Collection, Dr. Wilbert Chagula Library, Class mark (THS EAF TD 374T34N79)
Keywords
Water quality, Squatter settlements, Dar es Salaam
Citation
Ntukula, J.W (2002)Water quality and environment in squatter settlements of metropolitan Dar es Salaam. Master dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam.