Balancing the distribution network of Dar es Salaam water supply system.

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University of Dar es Salaam
The purpose of this project is to balance the distribution network of the Dar es Salaam water supply system. The target of the process of balancing is to control supply according to water demanded. So we formulated a mathematical model that can reduce the existing pressure and flow differences, at the same time reducing uneven water distribution in the city. The basic equations used in the formulation of the model are the Continuity and Bernoulli's equations. The application of these equations results in the formation of a system of coupled linear and nonlinear equations. The systems are solved by using Numerical methods. The Steepest Descent method is used to obtain reasonably appropriate initial approximation and Newton's method for systems of nonlinear equations is used to obtain the approximate solutions for the model. These approximate solutions of the model are the required balancing values for the model. The algorithms of the above methods are translated into Turbo Pascal Programming Language. The findings of the project reveal that: First, the results show that the model gives every demand node the water demand for the population. There is no area that receives water not demanded and no area that receives insufficient water. Second, the existing pressures and velocities are low compared with the water demand for the population in the model area. Third, there is a need for increasing supply pressures in the distribution network and, fourth, the original design of the Dar es Salaam water supply should be expanded to accommodate the present population demand. Consequent upon the findings, it is recommended that: Since the model results are valid and appropriate, this project can be extended to cover the whole city. This should include calculation of present water demand for various purposes. A study should also be undertaken to determine how long the river Ruvu can sustain the water demand for the Dar es Salaam population. The lost water tends to disturb the supply, hence efforts should be made to control the loss. A replacement of old pipeline materials by new ones should be made, and overhead tanks are recommended to make the supply more regular.
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Civil service reform, Water supply system, Dar es Salaam, Ruvu river, Tanzania
Duwe, A. B. (1996). Balancing the distribution network of Dar es Salaam water supply system. Master dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam. Available at (