The impact of human activities in Ngorongoro conservation area, Tanzania

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University of Dar es Salaam
The study to examine the impact of human activities was conducted in Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA), Tanzania in 1990-2010. The NCA is a world heritage site that serves as a multiple land-use since 1959 where wildlife conservation and socio-economic development of pastoralist Maasai have co-existed. Like many other protected areas in tropics the NCA is facing an increasing ecological change resulting from an ever growing human population. The rapid population growth and diversified livelihood activities are widely associated with biodiversity declining and environments degradation. However, the compound effects of these livelihoods are inadequately studied to quantify the extent of actual impacts on the ground. Specific objectives of this study were to examine human activities in NCA, ecosystem change over time, common drivers of ecological change and significance of the perceived impacts. A case study research design was applied and research tools used involved questionnaires, interviews, focus group discussions, direct field observations and documentation. Respondents were selected through purposive and simple random sampling. A total of 145 people were involved. Landsat MSS satellite images of 1990, 2000 and 2013 were used to assess land use/cover changes to complement the socio-economic data. The data were analyzed through theme-content technique, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and GIS for satellite imagery. The findings indicated rapid human population growth in 1988-2012 by 5.6% and an increment of 1.1% of livestock population per annum. The increasing human population was associated with the observed land use/cover change over time. It was observed that there has been increased cropland by 50% while the grassland and other natural forests showed a decreasing trend. The data also indicate a decreased population of wildebeest and zebra while buffaloes and crown crane had increased. This trend was attributed to the observed land cover changes. The increasing woodland in villages might have contributed to the increased buffaloes. Noteworthy, it has also been established in the area that, there is an increased number of invasive species in disturbed (cultivated and tourist) and construction (road sides) areas.
Available in print form, East Africana Collection, Dr. Wilbert Chagula Library, Class mark (THS EAF QH77T34M34)
Ngorongoro Game Control Area Researve (Tanzania), Human activities, Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania
Makoba, R. M (2014) The impact of human activities in Ngorongoro conservation area, Tanzania, Master dissertation, University of Dar es Salaam. Dar es Salaam.